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What Causes Type 2 Diabetes?

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It is a widespread illness that affects 425 million adults around the world. This number is projected to grow to 592 million in 2035. It’s a chronic condition that causes the disease known as hyperglycemia (high level of blood sugar). The most well-known kind of diabetes. The risk factors are both natural and environmental.Insulin resistance is the primary cause of type 2.

Cause

Your body transforms food into glucose (sugar) for energy use. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, regulates the release of sugar into your bloodstream.

It occurs when there is insufficient insulin, or improper use of insulin by the body. The result is that excessive sugar remains in the bloodstream, leading to chronic hyperglycemia (high glucose levels in the blood).

Prolonged exposure to this excessive sugar impairs insulin production, delivery, and utilization. This causes resistance to insulin, which is the principal cause of type 2 diabetes.

Is Type 2 Diabetes Hereditary?

The genetic makeup of your body is determined by your DNA or genes (deoxyribonucleic acid). Genetic disorders result from mutations or variations in the DNA sequence. But this doesn’t mean that they are passed down from parent to offspring.

A genetic mutation acquired through inheritance is present from birth. However, genes can also changein response to environmental conditions. these mutations after birth aren’t inherited.

The chance of developing type 2 diabetes increases if the first-degree relative has it. First-degree relatives include your parents, siblings, and children.

A study revealed the following facts about the family connection:

  • If you’ve one sibling with Type 2 Diabetes, your risk of developing the disease increases by 2-3…
  • If you’ve two siblings who have Type 2 Diabetes, your risk of developing the disease rises by 30%…
  • The risk is more significant when the parent at risk is your mother rather than your dad.

Researchers have discovered 150 genetic variations that could raise the possibility of developing diabetes. What role these mutations play in the development of the disease remains unclear. Most likely, hereditary and environmental triggers can cause type 2 diabetes.

Do these figures mean you have inherited type 2 diabetes? Not necessarily. They may indicate a family connection and a genetic predisposition to the illness.The family connection may also be influenced by shared habits and lifestyles.

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Who Gets Type 2 Diabetes?

Diabetes type 2 is an international disease that impacts people all around the globe. However, some individuals are more susceptible to developing type 2 diabetes because of certain aspects.

  • Place Eighty percent of people with type 2 diabetes residing in countries with low or middle incomes. Rates are also increasing across Western Europe and island states in the Pacific.
  • Weight Obesity is One of the leading causes of type 2 diabetics.
  • Age Diabetes type 2 is generally diagnosed in older adults over 45. However, it may  occur in children,adolescents, and even young people.
  • Pre-existing health conditions Diabetes type 2 is more likely to occur if you are suffering from pre-existing medical conditions, like pre-diabetes, high blood pressure, or hypertension.

Type 2 diabetes tends to be more frequent among Asian Americans, African American Hispanic/Latino Pacific Islanders, or American Indians.

Risk Factors

The risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes include both modifiable and unmodifiable ones, such as your family’s genetics and age. The other risk factors are based on behavior, which means you’ve got more or less control over them. These include physical inactivity or insufficient nutrition.

Obesity

Obesity is the most significant risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. This is because the adipose (fat) tissue increases insulin resistance. This increases your risk of developing the disease by six times, regardless of your family genetic susceptibility. having a higher body fat  percentage constitutes a risk factors.

However, research has shown that people with lower muscle mass, high abdomenal fat, and a larger waist  measurement have a higher risk. A waist circumference of more than 40 inches for males assigned at birth can increase the risk. For individuals assigned females at birth, the risk is higher with a waist size of 35 inches (when you are not pregnant).

Physical Inactivity

Lack of  Physical activity increases the likelihood of weight gain, which can cause insulin resistance.Age-related insulin resistance is common and normal .
However, physical inactivity and weight gain can make it more severe.

a lack of exercise can increase the risk of developing diabetes regardless of weight. The incidence of type 2 diabetes is growing in countries that have lower general overweight. Researchers believe this is due to reduced physical activity and changes in eating habits.

Poor Diet or Nutrition

Excess calories, sugary foods, drinks, saturated fats, and trans fats cause weight gain. Continuous exposure to sugar and free fatty acids can alter insulin secretion and lead to resistance to insulin.

A poor diet can be a problem in the early years of life and continue to  occur  in the age of adulthood. Researchers have discovered that a higher consumption of green leafy vegetables as well as whole grains lower the risk of developing diabetes type 2.

Reducing your consumption of these foods lowers the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes:

  • Refined grains like white bread, rice, and corn
  • Processed and red meat
  • Sweetened drinks with sugar, such as juice and soda
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Age

Diabetes type 2 can develop at any age. However, it typically begins around the middle age (over 45) or later. About 25 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are 65 years old or older.

Genetics

Having a first-degree relative with diabetes increases the risk of developing diabetes. This includes parents and siblings. It’s unclear if it’s due to shared genetics or lifestyle. It’s likely to be a combination of both.

Medical History

Certain medical conditions can increase the chance of developing diabetes. This is the case with pre-diabetes as well as insulin resistance. Pre-diabetes occurs when the blood sugar level is elevated but not high enough to have the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

In the U.S., 96 million adults (one-third of the population) suffer from pre-diabetes. Research suggests that 8/10 of them are not aware.

Other conditions that can increase your risk of getting sick include:

  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Dyslipidemia (imbalance of lipids like cholesterol in blood)
  • Hypertriglyceridemia (increased amount of triglycerides (a type of fat) in your blood)
  • PCOS is also known as polycystic ovarian syndrome. (a hormonal disorder that causes cysts and enlarged ovaries)
  • Acanthosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation or darker areas within skin folds) that is connected with insulin resistance
  • Gestational diabetes (a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy)

Atherosclerotic heart disease (build-up of cholesterol and fats in blood vessels)

Behavioral Risk Factors

Aside from inactivity and an unhealthy diet, these habits increase your risk of getting type 2 diabetes:

  • Not sleeping for more than five hours in a single night
  • More than nine hours of sleep per night
  • A rotating shift work schedule
  • Cigarette smoking (independent of weight or any other risk factor)
  • Drinking moderate amounts of alcohol

Experts estimate 90% of type 2 diabetes is avoidable by  reducing risk factors attributed to behavior. This includes maintaining a healthy weight, following a nutritious diet, exercising for 30 minutes per day, quitting smoking, and limiting alcohol consumption.

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A Quick Review

Type 2 diabetes can be described as a long-term health issue characterized by elevated glucose levels in the blood. The leading reason for developing Type 2 Diabetes is resistance to insulin caused by a mix of genetic and environmental factors

Insulin is a hormonal substance produced by the pancreas. It aids in the regulation of glucose (blood sugar) levels in the bloodstream. If your body cannot use insulin correctly (insulin resistance), excessive sugar is stored in the blood.

Type 2 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most frequently seen in adults over 45. Major risk factors include obesity, poor nutrition, and low physical activity. Although there is a hereditary component, the exact cause of the connection remains unclear.

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